What is glaucoma referred to as?
The term “glaucoma” is used to refer to several different types of eye diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve. It’s the most prevalent cause of visual loss due to damage to the optic nerve. Fluid usually accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye. Over time, the optic nerve is harmed by the added pressure from this fluid on the eye. We refer to this force as “eye pressure” or “intraocular pressure” (IOP).
It is possible to develop glaucoma despite having normal eye pressure. Glaucoma causes irreversible vision loss and blindness if it is not treated or is inadequately controlled.
Significant types of glaucoma:
- Up to 80% of people with glaucoma eye disease suffer from this variety.
- It’s caused by microscopic deposits’ gradual obstruction of the eye’s drainage channels.
- It seems as though all the canals are open and operating properly.
- But the deposits cause fluid to build up and put pressure on the optic nerve over a period of months or years.
- The fact that few people experience symptoms means the disease often goes undetected for a long time.
- This extremely rare form of glaucoma, also known as angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma, typically develops rapidly (acute).
- It develops when there is insufficient space between the cornea (the transparent outer layer of the eye) and the iris (the coloured component of the eye that controls light exposure).
- Consequently, the drainage canals get clogged, preventing the aqueous fluid from draining out of the eye and leading to a sudden increase in intraocular pressure.
- Eye pain and headaches are only two symptoms that may be so severe that you need to see a doctor immediately.
When does a person know they have glaucoma?
Open-angle glaucoma typically manifests itself in a slow and subtle fashion. Because of this, seeing them can be difficult. It is crucial to undergo routine eye exams in order to discover open-angle glaucoma in its early stages, as many patients with this condition have no obvious symptoms in the beginning. Due to the permanent nature of glaucoma damage, early diagnosis and eye pressure treatment are essential in preventing blindness.
Compared to open-angle glaucoma, closed-angle glaucoma tends to present more severe symptoms at once.
Possible side effects of any type include the following.
- Eye pain or pressure.
- Rainbow-coloured halos around lights.
- Impairments to one’s eyesight such as poor clarity, haziness, tunnel vision, or blind patches.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Red eyes.
Diagnostic procedures for glaucoma:
You may have glaucoma and not realize it. Glaucoma and other eye diseases can only be detected through routine examinations. Examining one’s eyes is an excellent way to gauge the overall health and detect any signs of vision impairment.
Your eye doctor may do one or more of the following noninvasive procedures to detect glaucoma:
- Examination of the optic nerve and retina through dilated pupils.
- Glaucoma specialists use gonioscopy to look at the junction of the iris and the cornea.
- Glaucoma detection by optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic nerve.
- Tonometry is a test used to evaluate the pressure in the eyes.
- Corneal thickness was measured using pachymetry.
- A slit-lamp examination involves using a narrow, light-emitting beam (called a “slit”) to peer into the eye.
- Examine your eyesight with eye charts for any signs of visual impairment.
- To detect changes in peripheral vision, a visual field test (perimeter) is performed (your ability to see things off to the side).
Treatment options to overcome glaucoma include:
Glaucoma is irreversible in that it cannot be undone once the damage has been done. However, catching the condition early on through medication and examinations can help slow or prevent vision loss.
Treatment for glaucoma focuses on reducing intraocular pressure (intraocular pressure). Your choices may include prescribed eye drops, oral drugs, laser treatment, surgery, or a combination of these.
Prescribed eye drops are frequently used as an initial treatment for glaucoma. These may help reduce eye pressure by reducing tear production or enhancing tear drainage. Depending on how low your eye pressure needs to be, one or more of the eyedrops may be required.
Other treatment options include laser therapy and several surgical procedures. The following treatments are intended to increase the drainage of fluid within the eye, hence decreasing pressure.
Surgeons perform this operation by inserting a shunt—a tiny tube—into the eye to redirect fluid drainage and reduce intraocular pressure. Consult the best eye hospital in Coimbatore, in case you are looking to undergo glaucoma treatment.
During a trabeculectomy, your surgeon will make an incision in the sclera (the transparent outer layer of the eye) and remove some of the trabecular meshwork to improve your vision.
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS):
If your eye pressure is too high, your doctor may recommend a minimally invasive glaucoma surgery. Compared to trabeculectomy and drainage device insertion, these procedures often have a shorter recovery time and lower risk profiles. Cataract removal procedures frequently include them. The different MIGS procedures will be discussed with you by your doctor, and you will be able to decide which is the best for you.
Glaucoma is a disease that gradually worsens over time, resulting in impaired eyesight. To preserve vision, glaucoma therapy must begin as soon as possible after diagnosis. Disease progression and eyesight loss can be slowed with treatment.
If you suffer from open-angle glaucoma, you may be a candidate for laser trabeculoplasty. The operation is performed at a glaucoma eye hospital. Your glaucoma specialist uses a thin laser beam to clear blocked trabecular meshwork channels. The final results from this laser treatment for glaucoma may not be seen for a few weeks.